ho, hé, to: theOriginal Word: ὁ, ἡ, τό
Part of Speech: Definite Article
Transliteration: ho, hé, to
Phonetic Spelling: (ho)
Short Definition: the
Definition: the, the definite article.
the def. art.
about (2), all (5), case* (3), cause* (1), circumstances* (3), companions* (8), condition* (1), experiences (2), far (1), followers* (1), former* (1), meat (1), one (6), one who (1), one* (1), others (4), others* (1), outsiders* (3), people (1), sight (1), some (7), some* (5), suitable (1), these (4), things (1), this (31), those (406), those who (17), together* (8), under* (1), welfare (1), what (47), what had happened (1), what* (1), which (14), who (52), whoever (8), whom (4).
STRONGS NT 3588: ὁ
ὁ, ἡ, τό, originally τος, τῇ, τό (as is evident from the forms τοι, ται for οἱ, αἱ in Homer and the Ionic writings), corresponds to our definite article the (German der, die, das), which is properly a demonstrative pronoun, which we see in its full force in Homer, and of which we find certain indubitable traces also in all kinds of Greek prose, and hence also in the N. T.
I. As a demonstrative pronoun; Latinhic, hacc, hoc; German der, die, das, emphatic; cf. Winers Grammar, § 17, 1; Buttmann, 101f (89f);
1. in the words of the poet Aratus, τοῦ γάρ καί γένος ἐσμεν, quoted by Paul in Acts 17:28.
2. in prose, where it makes a partition or distributes into parts: ὁ μέν ... ὁ δέ, that ... this, the one ... the other: Matthew 13:23 R G Tr (here the division is threefold); Galatians 4:23 (here L WH Tr marginal reading brackets μέν); οἱ μέν ... οἱ δέ, Acts 28:24; Philippians 1:16f; οἱ μέν ... ὁ δέ, Hebrews 7:5f, 20 (21), 23f; τούς μέν ... τούς δέ, Mark 12:5 R G; Ephesians 4:11; οἱ μέν ... ἄλλοι δέ (Lclnn. οἱ δέ) ... ἕτεροι δέ, Matthew 16:14 cf. John 7:12; τινες followed by οἱ δέ, Acts 17:18; ὅς (see ὅς I.) μέν followed by ὁ δέ, Romans 14:2; οἱ δέ stands as though οἱ μέν had preceded, Matthew 26:67; Matthew 28:17.
3. in narration, when either two persons or two parties are alternately placed in opposition to each other and the discourse turns from one to the other; ὁ δέ, but he, and he (German er aber): Matthew 2:14; Matthew 4:4; Matthew 21:29; Mark 1:45; Mark 12:15; Luke 8:21, 30, 48; Luke 22:10, 34; John 9:38, and very often; plural, Matthew 2:5, 9; Matthew 4:20; Mark 12:14 (R G L marginal reading), 16 (L brackets οἱ δέ); Luke 7:4; Luke 20:5, 12; Luke 22:9, 38, 71; Acts 4:21; Acts 12:15, and often; οἱ μέν οὖν, in the Acts alone: Acts 1:6; Acts 5:41; Acts 15:3, 30; ὁ μέν οὖν, .
II. As the definite or prepositive article (to be distinguished from the postpositive article — as it is called when it has the force of a relative pronoun, like the German der, die, das, examples of which use are not found in the N. T.), whose use in the N. T. is explained at length by Winers Grammar, §§ 18-20; Buttmann, 85 (74ff); (Green, p. 5ff). As in all languages the article serves to distinguish things, persons, notions, more exactly, it is prefixed
1. to substantives that have no modifier; and a. those that designate a person or a thing that is the only one of its kind; the article thus distinguishes the same from all other persons or things, as ὁ ἥλιος, ὁ οὐρανός, ἡ γῆ, ἡ θάλασσα, ὁ Θεός, ὁ λόγος (John 1:1f), ὁ διάβολος, τό φῶς, ἡ σκοτία, ἡ ζωή, ὁ θάνατος, etc.
b. appellative names of persons and things definite enough in themselves, or made so by the context, or sufficiently well-known from history; thus, to the names of virtues and vices, as ἡ δικαιοσύνη, ἡ σοφία, ἡ δύναμις, ἡ ἀλήθεια, etc. ὁ ἐρχόμενος, the well-known personage who is to come, i. e. the Messiah, Matthew 11:3; Luke 7:19; ὁ προφήτης, the (promised and expected) prophet, John 1:21; John 7:40; ἡ σωτηρία, the salvation which all good men hope for, i. e. the Messianic salvation: ἡ γραφή, etc.; ἡ νεφέλη, the cloud (well known from the O. T.), 1 Corinthians 10:1f; τούς ἀγγέλους, James 2:25; τῷ ἐκτρώματι, 1 Corinthians 15:8. to designations of eminent personages: ὁ υἱός τοῦ Θεοῦ, ὁ υἱός τοῦ ἀνθρώπου (see υἱός); ὁ διδάσκαλος τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, John 3:10; cf. Fritzsche on Mark, p. 613. The article is applied to the repeated name of a person or thing already mentioned or indicated, and to which the reader is referred, as τούς μάγους, Matthew 2:7 cf. 1; οἱ ἀσκοί, Matthew 9:17: οἱ δαίμονες, Matthew 8:31 cf. Matthew 8:28; τήν ὄνον καί τόν πῶλον, Matthew 21:7, cf. Matthew 21:2, and countless other examples The article is used with names of things not yet spoken of, in order to show that definite things are referred to, to be distinguished from others of the same kind and easily to be known from the context; as τά βρέφη, the babes belonging to the people of that place, Luke 18:15; ἀπό τῶν δένδρων, namely, which were there, Matthew 21:8; τῷ ἱερεῖ, to the priest whose duty it will be to examine thee, when thou comest, Matthew 8:4; Mark 1:44; Luke 5:14; τό πλοῖον, the ship which stood ready to carry them over, Matthew 8:23 (R G T, cf. Matthew 8:18); (R G); (R G); τό ὄρος, the mountain near the place in question (der an Ort u. Stelle befindliche Berg) (But some commentators still regard τό ὄρος as used here generically or Hebraistically like ἡ ὀρεινῇ, the mountain region or the highlands, in contrast with the low country (cf. the Sept. Joshua 17:16; Joshua 20:7; Genesis 19:17, 19, etc.); cf. Lightfoot 'Fresh Revision' etc., p. 111f; Weiss, Matthäusevangelium, p. 129 note; and in Meyer's Matthew 7te Aufl.), Matthew 5:1; Mark 3:13; Luke 9:28; John 6:3, 15 (1 Macc. 9:38, 40); ἡ οἰκία, the house in which (Jesus) was wont to lodge, Matthew 9:10, 28; Matthew 13:36; Matthew 17:25; ὑπό τόν μόδιον, namely, that is in the house, Matthew 5:15; also ἐπί τήν λυχνίαν, ibid.; ἐν τῇ φάτνη, in the manger of the stable of the house where they were lodging, Luke 2:7 R G; ὁ ἔπαινος, the praise of which he is worthy, 1 Corinthians 4:5; so everywhere in the doxologies: ἡ δόξα τό κράτος, 1 Peter 4:11; Revelation 5:13, etc.
c. The article prefixed to the plural often either includes all and every one of those who by the given name are distinguished from other things having a different name — as οἱ ἀστέρες, Matthew 24:29; Mark 13:25; αἱ ἀλωτεκες, Matthew 8:20; Luke 9:58, etc.; — or defines the class alone, and thus indicates that the whole class is represented by the individuals mentioned, however many and whosoever they may be; as in οἱ Φαρισαῖοι, οἱ γραμματεῖς, οἱ τελῶναι, οἱ ἄνθρωποι people, the multitude (German die Leute); οἱ ἀετοί, Matthew 24:28; τοῖς κυσίν, Matthew 7:6.
d. The article prefixed to the singular sometimes so defines only the class, that all and every one of those who bear the name are brought to mind; thus, ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Matthew 15:11; ὁ ἐθνικός καί τελώνης, Matthew 18:17; ὁ ἐργάτης, Luke 10:7; 1 Timothy 5:18; ὁ μεσίτης, Galatians 3:20; ὁ κληρονόμος, Galatians 4:1; ὁ δίκαιος, Romans 1:17; Hebrews 10:38; τά σημεῖα τοῦ ἀποστόλου, the signs required of anyone who claims to be an apostle, 2 Corinthians 12:12, and ether examples e. The article is prefixed to the nominative often put for the vocative in addresses (cf. Winers Grammar, § 29, 2; Buttmann, § 129 a. 5): χαῖρε ὁ βασιλεύς τῶν Ἰουδαίων (properly, σύ ὁ βασιλεύς, thou who art the king), John 19:3; ναί, ὁ πατήρ, Matthew 11:26; ἄγε νῦν οἱ πλούσιοι, κλαύσατε, James 5:1; οὐρανέ καί οἱ ἅγιοι, Revelation 18:20; add, Mark 5:41; Mark 10:47; Luke 12:32; Luke 18:11, 13; John 8:10; John 20:28; Acts 13:41; Romans 8:15; Ephesians 5:14, 22, 25; Ephesians 6:1, 4; Revelation 12:12.
f. The Greeks employ the article, where we abstain from its use, before nouns denoting things that pertain to him who is the subject of discourse: εἶπε or φησί μεγάλη τῇ φωνή, Acts 14:10 (R G); (Proverbs 26:25); γυνή προσευχομένη ... ἀκατακαλύπτῳ τῇ κεφαλή, 1 Corinthians 11:5; especially in the expression ἔχειν τί, when the object and its adjective, or what is equivalent to an adjective, denotes a part of the body or something else which naturally belongs to anyone (as in French,il a les epaules larges); so, ἐήξειν τήν χεῖρα ξηράν, Matthew 12:10 R G; Mark 3:1; τό πρόσωπον ὡς ἀνθρώπου ((Rec. ἄνθρωπος)), Revelation 4:7; τά αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα, Hebrews 5:14; ἀπαράβατον τήν ἱερωσύνην, Hebrews 7:24; τήν κατοίκησιν κτλ., Mark 5:3; τήν εἰς ἑαυτούς ἀγάπην ἐκτενῆ, 1 Peter 4:8. Cf. Grimm on 2 Macc. 3:25. the genitive of a person pronoun αὐτοῦ, ὑμῶν, is added to the substantive: Matthew 3:4; Mark 8:17; Revelation 2:18; 1 Peter 2:12, cf. Ephesians 1:18; cf. Winers Grammar, § 18, 2; (Buttmann, § 125,5).
g. Proper Names sometimes have the article and sometimes are anarthrous; cf. Winers Grammar, § 18, 5 and 6; Buttmann, § 124, 3 and 4; (Green, p. 28f); α. as respects names of Persons, the person without the article is simply named, but with the article is marked as either well known or as already mentioned; thus we find Ἰησοῦς and ὁ Ἰησοῦς, Παῦλος and ὁ Παῦλος, etc. Πιλᾶτος has the article everywhere in John's Gospel and also in Mark's Gospel, if Mark 15:43 (in R G L) be excepted (but T Tr WH insert the article there also); Τίτος is everywhere anarthrous. Indeclinable names of persons in the oblique cases almost always have the article, unless the case is made evident by a preposition: τῷ Ἰωσήφ, Mark 15:45; τόν Ἰακώβ καί τόν Ἠσαῦ, Hebrews 11:20, and many other examples, especially in the genealogies, Matthew 1:1ff; Luke 3:23; but where perspicuity does not require the article, it is omitted also in the oblique cases, as τῶν υἱῶν Ἰωσήφ, Hebrews 11:21; τῶν υἱῶν Αμμωρ, Acts 7:16; ὁ Θεός Ἰσαάκ, Matthew 22:32; Acts 7:32; ὅταν ὄψησθε Ἀβραάμ καί Ἰσαάκ ... καί πάντας τούς προφήτας, Luke 13:28. The article is commonly omitted with personal proper names to which is added an apposition indicating the race, country, office, rank, surname, or something else, (cf. Matthiae, § 274): let the following suffice as examples: Ἀβραάμ ὁ πατήρ ἡμῶν, John 8:56; Romans 4:1; Ἰάκωβον τόν τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου καί Ἰωάννην τόν ἀδελφόν αὐτοῦ, Matthew 4:21; Μαρία ἡ Μαγδαληνή, Matthew 27:56, etc.; Ἰωάννης ὁ βαπτιστής, Matthew 3:1; ἡροδης ὁ τετράρχης, Luke 9:7; Ἰησοῦς ὁ λεγόμενος Χριστός, Matthew 1:16; Σαῦλος δέ ὁ καί Παῦλος namely, καλούμενος, Acts 13:9; Σίμωνος τοῦ λεπροῦ, Mark 14:3; Βαρτιμαῖος ὁ τυφλός, Mark 10:46 (R G); Ζαχαριου τοῦ ἀπολομένου, Luke 11:51. But there are exceptions also to this usage ὁ δέ ἡροδης ὁ τετράρχης, Luke 3:19; τόν Σαούλ, υἱόν Κίς, Acts 13:21; in the opening of the Epistles: Παῦλος ἀπόστολος, Romans 1:1; 1 Corinthians 1:1, etc. β. Proper names of countries and region s have the article far more frequently than those of cities and towns, for the reason that most names of countries, being derived from adjectives, get the force of substantives only by the addition of the article, as ἡ Ἀχαΐα (but cf. 2 Corinthians 9:2), ἡ Γαλατία, ἡ Γαλιλαία, ἡ Ἰταλία, ἡ Ἰουδαία, ἡ Μακεδονία (but cf. Romans 15:26; 1 Corinthians 16:5), etc. Only Αἴγυπτος, if Acts 7:11 L T Tr WH be excepted, is everywhere anarthrous. The names of cities, especially when joined to prepositions, particularly ἐν, εἰς and ἐκ, are without the article; but we find ἀπό (R G ἐκ) τῆς Ῥώμης in Acts 18:2. γ. Names of rivers and streams have the article in Matthew 3:13; Mark 1:5; Luke 4:1; Luke 13:4; John 1:28; τοῦ Κεδρών, John 18:1 G L Tr marginal reading
2. The article is prefixed to substantives expanded and more precisely defined by modifiers;
a. to nouns accompanied by a genitive of the pronouns μου, σου, ἡμῶν, ὑμῶν, αὐτοῦ, ἑαυτῶν, αὐτῶν: Matthew 1:21, 25; Matthew 5:45; Matthew 6:10-12; Matthew 12:49; Mark 9:17; Luke 6:27; Luke 10:7; Luke 16:6; Acts 19:25 (L T Tr WH ἡμῖν); Romans 4:19; Romans 6:6, and in numberless other places; it is rarely omitted, as in Matthew 19:28; Luke 1:72; Luke 2:32; 2 Corinthians 8:23; James 5:20, etc.; cf. Buttmann, § 127, 27.
b. The possessive pronouns ἐμός, σός, ἡμέτερος, ὑμέτερος, joined to substantives (if John 4:34 be excepted) always take the article, and John generally puts them after the substantive (ἡ κρίσις ἡ ἐμή, John 5:30; ὁ λόγος ὁ σός, ; κοινωνία ἡ ἡμετέρα, 1 John 1:3; ὁ καιρός ὁ ὑμέτερος, John 7:6), very rarely between the article and the substantive (τοῖς ἐμοῖς ῤήμασιν, John 5:47; ἡ ἐμή διδαχή, ; τήν σήν λαλιάν, ), yet this is always done by the other N. T. writings, Matthew 18:20; Mark 8:38; Luke 9:26; Acts 24:6 (Rec.); ; Romans 3:7, etc.
c. When adjectives are added to substantives, either the adjective is placed between the article and the substantive — as τό ἴδιον φορτίον, Galatians 6:5; ὁ ἀγαθός ἄνθρωπος, Matthew 12:35; τήν δικαίαν κρίσιν, John 7:24; ἡ ἀγαθή μερίς, Luke 10:42; τό ἅγιον πνεῦμα, Luke 12:10; Acts 1:8; ἡ αἰώνιος ζωή, John 17:3, and many other examples; — or the adjective preceded by an article is placed after the substantive with its article, as τό πνεῦμα τό ἅγιον, Mark 3:29; John 14:26; Acts 1:16; Hebrews 3:7; Hebrews 9:8; Hebrews 10:15; ἡ ζωή αἰώνιος, 1 John 1:2; 1 John 2:25; ὁ ποιμήν ὁ καλός, John 10:11; τήν πύλην τήν σιδηρᾶν, Acts 12:10, and other examples; — very rarely the adjective stands before a substantive which has the article, as in Acts ( R G); ; 1 Corinthians 11:5 (cf. Buttmann, § 125, 5; Winer's Grammar, § 20, 1 c.). As to the adjectives of quantity, ὅλος, πᾶς, πολύς, see each in its own place.
d. What has been said concerning adjectives holds true also of all other limitations added to substantives, as ἡ κατ' ἐκλογήν πρόθεσις, Romans 9:11; παῥ ἐμοῦ διαθήκη, Romans 11:27; ὁ λόγος ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:18; ἡ εἰς Χριστόν πίστις, Colossians 2:5; on the other hand, ἡ πίστις ὑμῶν ἡ πρός τόν Θεόν, 1 Thessalonians 1:8; τῆς διακονίας τῆς εἰς τούς ἁγίους, 2 Corinthians 8:4; see many other examples of each usage in Winers Grammar, 131ff (124ff); (Buttmann, 91ff (80ff)).
e. The noun has the article before it when a demonstrative pronoun (οὗτος, ἐκεῖνος) belonging to it either precedes or follows (Winers Grammar, § 18, 4; Buttmann, § 127, 29-31); as, ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος, John 9:24 (οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, L Tr marginal reading WH); Acts 6:13; Acts 22:26; ὁ λαός οὗτος, Matthew 15:8; ὁ υἱός σου οὗτος, Luke 15:30; plural Luke 24:17, and numberless other examples; οὗτος ὁ ἄνθρωπος, Luke 14:30; οὗτος ὁ λαός, Mark 7:6 (ὁ λαός οὗτος, L WH marginal reading); οὗτος ὁ υἱός μου, Luke 15:24; οὗτος ὁ τελώνης, Luke 18:11 (ὁ τελώνης οὗτος, L marginal reading); οὗτος ὁ λόγος, John 7:36 (ὁ λόγος οὗτος, L T Tr WH), and many other examples on ἐκεῖνος, see ἐκεῖνος, 2; on αὐτός ὁ etc., see αὐτός (I. 1 b. etc.); on ὁ αὐτός etc., see αὐτός, III.
3. The neuter article prefixed to adjectives changes them into substantives (cf. Winers Grammar, § 34, 2; Buttmann, § 128, 1); as, τό ἀγαθόν, τό καλόν (which see each in its place); τό ἔλαττον, Hebrews 7:7; with a genitive added, τό γνωστόν τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 1:19; τό ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, Romans 8:3; τό ἀσθενές τοῦ Θεοῦ, 1 Corinthians 1:25; αὐτῆς, Hebrews 7:18; τά ἀόρατα τοῦ Θεοῦ, Romans 1:20; τά κρυπτά τῆς αἰσχύνης, 2 Corinthians 4:2, etc.
4. The article with cardinal numerals: εἷς one; ὁ εἷς the one (of two), see εἷς, 4 a.; but differently ὁ εἷς in Romans 5:15, 17, the (that) one. So also οἱ δύο (our the twain), Matthew 19:5; οἱ δέκα the (those) ten, and οἱ ἐννέα, Luke 17:17; ἐκεῖνοι οἱ δέκα (καί) ὀκτώ, Luke 13:4.
5. The article prefixed to participles a. gives them the force of substantives (Winers Grammar, §§ 18, 3; 45, 7; Buttmann, §§ 129, 1 b.; 144, 9); as, ὁ πειράζων, Matthew 4:3; 1 Thessalonians 3:5; ὁ βαπτίζων, Mark 6:14 (for which Matthew 14:2 ὁ βαπτιστής); ὁ σπείρων, Matthew 13:3; Luke 8:5; ὁ ὀλοθρεύων, Hebrews 11:28; οἱ βαστάζοντες, Luke 7:14; οἱ βόσκοντες, Matthew 8:33; Mark 5:14; οἱ ἐσθίοντες, the eaters (convivae), Matthew 14:21; τό ὀφειλόμενον, Matthew 18:30, 34; τά ὑπάρχοντα (see ὑπάρχω, 2).
b. the participle with the article must be resolved into he who (and a finite verb; cf. Buttmann, § 144, 9): Matthew 10:40; Luke 6:29; Luke 11:23; John 15:23; 2 Corinthians 1:21; Philippians 2:13, and very often. πᾶς ὁ followed by a participle (Winer's Grammar, 111 (106)), Matthew 5:22; Matthew 7:26; Luke 6:30 (T WH omit; L Tr marginal reading brackets article); ; Romans 2:1; 1 Corinthians 16:16; Galatians 3:13, etc.; μακάριος ὁ with a participle, Matthew 5:4 (), , etc.; οὐαί ὑμῖν οἱ with a preposition, Luke 6:25; the neuter τό with a participle must be resolved into that which (with a finite verb), τό γεννώμενον, Luke 1:35; τό γεγεννημένον, John 3:6.
c. the article with participle is placed in apposition: Mark 3:22; Acts 17:24; Ephesians 3:20; Ephesians 4:22, 24; 2 Timothy 1:14; 1 Peter 1:21, etc.
6. The neuter τό before infinitives a. gives them the force of substantives (cf. Buttmann, 261ff (225ff) (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 44, 2 a.; 3 c.)); as, τό καθίσαι, Matthew 20:23; Mark 10:40; τό θέλειν, Romans 7:18; 2 Corinthians 8:10; τό ποιῆσαι, τό ἐπιτελέσαι, 2 Corinthians 8:11, and other examples; τοῦτο κρίνατε. τό μή τιθέναι κτλ., Romans 14:13. On the infinite with the article depending on a preposition (ἀντί τοῦ, ἐν τῷ, εἰς τό, etc.), see under each preposition in its place.
b. Much more frequent in the N. T. than in the earlier and more elegant Greek writings, especially in the writings of Luke and Paul (nowhere in John's Gospel and Epistles), is the use of the genitive τοῦ with an infinitive (and in the Sept. far more frequent than in the N. T.), which is treated of at length by Fritzsche in an excursus at the end of his commentary on Matthew, p. 843ff; Winers Grammar, § 44, 4; Buttmann, 266ff (228ff). The examples fall under the following classes: τοῦ with an infinitive is put α. after words which naturally require a genitive (of a noun also) after them; thus after ἄξιον, 1 Corinthians 16:4; ἔλαχε, Luke 1:9 (1 Samuel 14:47); ἐξαποροῦμαι, 2 Corinthians 1:8. β. for the simple expletive (i. e. 'complementary') or (as it is commonly called) epexegetical infinite, which serves to fill out an incomplete idea expressed by a noun or a verb or a phrase (where in German zu is commonly used); thus after προθυμία, 2 Corinthians 8:11; βραδεῖς, Luke 24:25; ἐλπίς, Acts 27:20; 1 Corinthians 9:10 (not Rec.); ἐζήτει εὐκαιρίαν, Luke 22:6 (not L marginal reading); ὁ καιρός (namely, ἐστι) τοῦ ἄρξασθαι, to begin, 1 Peter 4:17 (καιρόν χειν with the simple infinitive Hebrews 11:15); διδόναι τήν ἐξουσίαν, Luke 10:19 (ἐξουσίαν ἔχειν with simple infinitive, John 19:10; 1 Corinthians 9:4); ὀφειλέται ἐσμεν (equivalent to ὀφείλομεν), Romans 8:12 (with an infinitive alone, Galatians 5:3); ἕτοιμον εἶναι, Acts 23:15 (1 Macc. 3:58 1 Macc. 5:39 1 Macc. 13:31; with an infinitive alone, Luke 22:33); χρείαν ἔχειν, Hebrews 5:12; ἔδωκεν ὀφθαλμούς τοῦ μή βλέπειν καί ὦτα τοῦ μή ἀκούειν, that they should not see ... that they should not hear (cf. Buttmann, 267 (230)), Romans 11:8 (χειν ὦτα elsewhere always with a simple infinitive; see οὖς, 2); ἐπλήσθη ὁ χρόνος τοῦ τεκεῖν αὐτήν, at which she should be delivered (cf. Buttmann, the passage cited), Luke 1:57; ἐπλήσθησαν ἡμέραι ... τοῦ περιτεμεῖν αὐτόν, that they should circumcise him (cf. Buttmann, the passage cited), Luke 2:21; after ἀνένδεκτόν ἐστιν, Luke 17:1 (so Buttmann, § 140, 15; (Winer's Grammar, 328 (308) otherwise)); quite unusually after ἐγένετο (cf. Buttmann, § 140, 16 δ.; Winer's Grammar, the passage cited), Acts 10:25 (Rec. omits the article). γ. after verbs of deciding, entreating, exhorting, commanding, etc.: after κρίνειν (see κρίνω, 4); ἐγένετο γνώμη (γνώμης T Tr WH (see γίνομαι, 5 e. a.)), Acts 20:3; τό πρόσωπον ἐστήριξεν, Luke 9:51; συντίθεσθαι, Acts 23:20 (with an infinitive alone, Luke 22:5); προσεύχεσθαι, James 5:17; παρακαλεῖν, Acts 21:12; ἐντέλλεσθαι, Luke 4:10; ἐπιστέλλειν, Acts 15:20 (with an infinitive alone, Acts 21:25 (R G T, but L Tr text WH here ἐπεστείλαμεν; Buttmann, 270 (232))); κατανεύειν, Luke 5:7. δ. after verbs of hindering, restraining, removing (which naturally require the genitive), and according to the well-known pleonasm with μή before the infinitive (see μή, I. 4 a.; Buttmann, § 148, 13; Winer's Grammar, 325 (305)); thus, after κατέχω τινα, Luke 4:42; κρατοῦμαι, Luke 24:16; κωλύω, Acts 10:47; ὑποστέλλομαι, Acts 20:20, 27; παύω, 1 Peter 3:10; καταπαύω, Acts 14:18; without μή before the infinitive after ἐγκόπτομαι, Romans 15:22. ε. τοῦ with an infinitive is added as a somewhat loose epexegesis: Luke 21:22; Acts 9:15; Acts 13:47; Philippians 3:21; εἰς ἀκαθαρσίαν τοῦ ἀτιμάζεσθαι τά σώματα αὐτῶν, to the uncleanness of their bodies being dishonored, Romans 1:24 (cf. Buttmann, § 140, 14); Winer's Grammar, 325f (305f). ζ. it takes the place of an entire final clause, in order that (Winers Grammar, § 44, 4 b.; Buttmann, § 140, 17); especially after verbs implying motion: Matthew 2:13; Matthew 3:13; Matthew 13:3; Matthew 24:45; Mark 4:3 (where L T WH omit; Tr brackets τοῦ); Luke 1:77, 79; Luke 2:24, 27; Luke 5:1 (R G L text Tr marginal reading); (here L omits; Tr brackets τοῦ); ; Acts 3:2; Acts 20:30; Acts 26:18; Romans 6:6; Romans 11:10; Galatians 3:10; Philippians 3:10; Hebrews 10:7, 9; Hebrews 11:5. ἡ. used of result so that: Acts 7:19; Romans 7:3; after ποιῶ, to cause that, make to, Acts 3:12; (cf. Winers Grammar, 326 (306); Buttmann, § 140, 16 δ.).
7. The article with adverbs (Buttmann, § 125, 10f; Winer's Grammar, § 18, 3), a. gives them the force of substantives; as, τό πέραν, the region beyond; τά ἄνω, τά κάτω, τό νῦν, τά ἔμπροσθεν, τά ὀπίσω, etc.; see these words in their proper places.
b. is used when they stand adjectivally, as ἡ ἄνω Ἱερουσαλήμ, ὁ τότε κόσμος, ὁ ἔσω ἄνθρωπος, ὁ νῦν αἰών, etc., on which see these several words.
c. the neuter τό is used in the accusative absolute, especially in specifications of time: both with adverbs of time, τό πάλιν, 2 Corinthians 13:2; τά νῦν or τανῦν, and with neuter adjectives used adverbially, as τό λοιπόν, τό πρότερον (John 6:62; Galatians 4:13); τό πρῶτον (John 10:40; John 12:16; John 19:39); τό πλεῖστον (1 Corinthians 14:2;); see these words themselves.
8. The article before prepositions with their cases is very often so used that ὤν, ὄντες, ὄντα, must be supplied in thought (cf. Buttmann, § 125, 9; Winer's Grammar, § 18, 3); thus, οἱ ἀπό Ἰταλίας, ἀπό Θεσσαλονίκης, Acts 17:13; Hebrews 13:24 (cf. Winer's Grammar, § 66, 6); ὁ ἐν τίνι, Matthew 6:9; Romans 8:1; neuter τά πρός, Mark 2:2; οἱ ἐκ τίνος, Romans 2:8; Romans 4:14, 16; Philippians 4:22 etc.; οἱ παρά τίνος, Mark 3:21 (see παρά, I. e.). τά περί τίνος, Luke 24:19; Acts 24:10; Philippians 1:27; (add, τά (T Tr WH τό) περί ἐμοῦ, Luke 22:37), etc. (see περί, I.
b. β.); τά περί τινα, Philippians 2:23 (see περί, II. b.); οἱ μετά τίνος, those with one, his companions, Matthew 12:3; οἱ περί τινα, and many other examples which are given under the several prepositions. the neuter τό in the accusative absolute in adverbial expressions (cf. Winers Grammar, 230 (216); Buttmann, §§ 125, 12; 131, 9): τό καθ' ἡμέραν, daily, day by day, Luke 11:3; Luke 19:47; Acts 17:11 (R G WH brackets); τό καθόλου, at all, Acts 4:18 (L T WH omit τό); besides, in τό κατά σάρκα, as respects human origin, Romans 9:5 (on the force of the article here see Abbot in the Journal of the Society for Biblical Literature, etc. for 1883, p. 108); τά κατ' ἐμέ, as respects what relates to me, my state, my affairs, Colossians 4:7; Ephesians 6:21; τό ἐξ ὑμῶν, as far as depends on you, Romans 12:18; τό ἐφ' ὑμῖν, as far as respects you, if I regard you, Romans 16:19 R G; τά πρός (τόν) Θεόν, the accusative absolute, as respects the things pertaining to God, i. e. in things pertaining to God, Romans 15:17; Hebrews 2:17; Hebrews 5:1 (ἱερεῖ τά πρός τούς Θεούς, στρατήγω δέ τά πρός τούς ἀνθρώπους, Xenophon, resp. Laced. 13, 11; cf. Fritzsche, Ep. ad Romans, iii., p. 262f); τό ἐκ μέρους namely, ὄν, that which has been granted us in part, that which is imperfect, 1 Corinthians 13:10.
9. The article, in all genders, when placed before the genitive of substantives indicates "kinship, affinity, or some kind of connection, association or fellowship, or in general that which in some way pertains to a person or thing" (cf Winers Grammar, § 30, 3; Buttmann, § 125, 7);
a. the masculine and the feminine article: Ἰάκωβος ὁ τοῦ Ζεβεδαίου, ὁ τοῦ Ἀλφαίου, the son, Matthew 10:2 (3), 3; Μαρία ἡ τοῦ Ἰακώβου, the mother, Mark 16:1 (T omits; Tr brackets τοῦ); Luke 24:10 (L T Tr WH); Ἑμμόρ τοῦ Συχέμ, of Hamor, the father of Shechem, Acts 7:16 R G; ἡ τοῦ Ουριου, the wife, Matthew 1:6; οἱ Χλόης, either the kinsfolk, or friends, or domestics, or work-people, or slaves, of Chloe, 1 Corinthians 1:11; also οἱ Ἀριστοβούλου, οἱ Ναρκίσσου, Romans 16:10f; οἱ τοῦ Χριστοῦ, the followers of Christ (A. V. they that are Christ's), 1 Corinthians 15:23 G L T Tr WH; Galatians 5:24; οἱ τῶν Φαρισαίων, the disciples of the Pharisees, Mark 2:18a Rec., 18b R G L; Καισάρεια ἡ Φιλίππου, the city of Philip, Mark 8:27.
b. τό and τά τίνος: as τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, the cause or interests, the purposes, of God, opposed to τά τῶν ἀνθρώπων, Matthew 16:23; Mark 8:33; in the same sense τά τοῦ κυρίου, opposed to τά τοῦ κόσμου, 1 Corinthians 7:32-34; τά τῆς σαρκός, τά τοῦ πνεύματος, Romans 8:5; τά ὑμῶν, your possessions, 2 Corinthians 12:14; ζητεῖν τό or τά τίνος, 1 Corinthians 10:24; 1 Corinthians 13:5; Philippians 2:21; τά τῆς εἰρήνης, τῆς οἰκοδομῆς, which make for, Romans 14:19; τά τῆς ἀσθενείας μου, which pertain to my weakness, 2 Corinthians 11:30; τά Καίσαρος, τά τοῦ Θεοῦ, due to Caesar, due to God, Matthew 22:21; Mark 12:17; Luke 20:25; τά τοῦ νηπίου, the things wont to be thought, said, done, by a child, 1 Corinthians 13:11; τά τίνος, the house of one (τά Λυκωνος, Theocritus, 2, 76; (εἰς τά τοῦ ἀδελφοῦ, Lysias c. Eratosthenes § 12, p. 195); cf. ἐν τοῖς πατρικοῖς, in her father's house, Sir. 42:10; (Chrysostom hom. 52:(on Genesis 26:16), vol. iv. part ii. col. 458, Migne edition; Genesis 41:51; Esther 7:9, (Hebrew בַּיִת); Job 18:19 (Hebrew מָגוּר))); with the name of a deity, the temple (τά τοῦ Διός, Josephus, contra Apion 1, 18, 2; also τό τοῦ Διός, Lycurgus, adverb, Leocr., p. 231 ((orat. Attic, p. 167, 15))), Luke 2:49 (see other examples in Lob. ad Phryn., p. 100). τά τοῦ νόμου, the precepts of the (Mosaic) law, Romans 2:14; τό τῆς παροιμίας, the (saying) of (that which is said in) the proverb, 2 Peter 2:22; τά τῶν δαιμονιζομένων, what the possessed had done and experienced, Matthew 8:33; τό τῆς συκῆς, what has been done to the fig-tree, Matthew 21:21.
10. The neuter τό is put a. before entire sentences, and sums them up into one conception (Buttmann, § 125, 13; Winer's Grammar, 109 (103f)): εἶπεν αὐτῷ τό Αἰ δύνασαι πιστεῦσαι, said to him this: 'If thou canst believe,' Mark 9:23 (but L T Tr WH τό Αἰ δύνῃ 'If thou canst!'); cf. Bleek at the passage; (Riddell, The Apology etc. Digest of Idioms § 19 γ.). before the sayings and precepts of the O. T. quoted in the New: τό Οὐ φονεύσεις, the precept, 'Thou shalt not kill', Matthew 19:18; add, Luke 22:37 (where Lachmann ὅτι for τό); Romans 13:9; (1 Corinthians 4:6 L T Tr WH); Galatians 5:14. before indirect questions: τό τίς etc., τό τί etc., τό πῶς etc., Luke 1:62; Luke 9:46; Luke 19:48; Luke 22:2, 4, 23; Acts 4:21; Acts 22:30; Romans 8:26; 1 Thessalonians 4:1; cf. Matthiae, § 280; Krüger, § 50, 6, 10; Passow, ii., p. 395b; (Liddell and Scott, under the word, B. I. 3f).
b. before single words which are explained as parts of some discourse or statement (references as above): τό Αγαρ, the name Αγαρ, Galatians 4:25 (T L text WH marginal reading omit; Tr brackets Αγαρ); τό 'ἀνέβη', this word ἀνέβη, Ephesians 4:9 (cf. Lightfoot on Galatians, the passage cited); τό ἔτι ἅπαξ, Hebrews 12:27; cf. Matthiae, 2, p. 731f, 11. We find the unusual expression οὐαί (apparently because the interjection was to the writer a substitute for the term ἡ πληγή or ἡ θλῖψις (Winers Grammar, 179 (169))), misery, calamity (A. V. the Woe), in Revelation 9:12; Revelation 11:14.
III. Since it is the business, not of the lexicographer, but of the grammarian, to exhibit the instances in which the article is omitted in the N. T. where according to the laws of our language it would have been expected, we refer those interested in this matter to the Grammars of Winer (sec. 19) and Alex. Buttmann (sec. 124, 8) (cf. also Green, chapter ii. § iii.; Middleton, The Doctrine of the Greek Article (edited by Rose), pp. 41ff, 94f; and, particularly with reference to Granville Sharp's doctrine (Remarks on the uses of the Def. Art. in the Greek Text of the N. T., 3rd edition 1803), a tract by C. Winstanley (A Vindication etc.) republished at Cambr. 1819), and only add the following remarks:
1. More or less frequently the article is lacking before appellatives of persons or things of which only one of the kind exists, so that the article is not needed to distinguish the individual from others of the same kind, as ἥλιος, γῆ, Θεός, Χριστός, πνεῦμα ἅγιον, ζωή αἰώνιος, θάνατος, νεκροί (of the whole assembly of the dead (see νεκρός, 1 b., p. 423b)); and also of those persons and things which the connection of discourse clearly shows to be well-defined, as νόμος (the Mosaic law (see νόμος, 2, p. 428a)), κύριος, πατήρ, υἱός, ἀνήρ (husband), γυνή (wife), etc.
2. Prepositions which with their cases designate a state and condition, or a place, or a mode of acting, usually have an anarthrous noun after them; as, εἰς φυλακήν, ἐν φυλακή, εἰς ἀέρα, ἐκ πίστεως, κατά σάρκα, ἐπ' ἐλπίδι, παῥ ἐλπίδα, ἀπ' ἀγορᾶς, ἀπ' ἀγροῦ, ἄν ἀγρῷ, εἰς ὁδόν, ἐν ἡμέραις Ἡρῴδου, εἰς ἡμέραν ἀπολυτρώσεως, and numberless other examples.
STRONGS NT 3588: ὅὅ, τέ, ἥ, τέ, τό, τέ, see τέ 2 a. the, this, that, one, he, she, it
Including the feminine he (hay), and the neuter to (to) in all their inflections; the definite article; the (sometimes to be supplied, at others omitted, in English idiom) -- the, this, that, one, he, she, it, etc. αι αί αἱ αἵ αυτά αυτοίς αυτού αὐτοῦ αυτών γῇ Η ἡ ἥ και μου ν Ο ὁ ὅ Ὃ οβελίσκοι οβολοί οβολός οβολώ οδόντες οι οἱ οἵ ὃν ος ου ούτοί πάσαν προς σε τα τά τὰ ΤΑΙΣ ταῖς τας τὰς τη τῇ την τήν τὴν ΤΗΣ τὴς τῆς τν τνω ΤΟ Τό τὸ τοις τοίς τοῖς ΤΟΝ τόν τὸν τοπρωϊ ΤΟΥ τοῦ τους τούς τοὺς τοῦς τω τῷ ΤΩΝ τῶν ψου ai autou autoû e Ē ge gē gêi gē̂i hai haí he hē hḗ ho hó HÒ hoi hoí hon hòn O oi on ta tá tà TAIS taîs tas tàs te tē têi tē̂i ten tēn tḗn tḕn TeS tês TĒS tḕs tē̂s TO Tó tò tō tôi tō̂i tois toîs TON tón tòn tôn TŌN tō̂n TOU toû tous toús toùs toûs
Strong's Greek 3588
αἱ — 149 Occ.
ἡ — 992 Occ.
ὁ — 2965 Occ.
οἱ — 1121 Occ.
τὰ — 843 Occ.
ΤΑΙΣ — 203 Occ.
τὰς — 341 Occ.
τῇ — 882 Occ.
τὴν — 1538 Occ.
τῆς — 1306 Occ.
τὸ — 1714 Occ.
τῷ — 1246 Occ.
τῶν — 1218 Occ.
τοῖς — 628 Occ.
τὸν — 1588 Occ.
τοῦ — 2538 Occ.
τοὺς — 740 Occ.
Matthew 1:2 Art-AMS
BIB: Ἀβραὰμ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰσαάκ Ἰσαὰκ
INT: Abraham was father of Issac Isaac
Matthew 1:2 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰακώβ Ἰακὼβ
INT: moreover was father of Jacob Jacob
Matthew 1:2 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰούδαν καὶ
INT: moreover was father of Judah and
Matthew 1:2 Art-AMP
BIB: Ἰούδαν καὶ τοὺς ἀδελφοὺς αὐτοῦ
INT: Judah and the brothers of him
Matthew 1:3 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Φαρὲς καὶ
INT: moreover was father of Perez and
Matthew 1:3 Art-AMS
BIB: Φαρὲς καὶ τὸν Ζαρὰ ἐκ
INT: Perez and Zerah of
Matthew 1:3 Art-GFS
BIB: Ζαρὰ ἐκ τῆς Θάμαρ Φαρὲς
INT: Zerah of Tamar Perez
Matthew 1:3 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἑσρώμ Ἑσρὼμ
INT: moreover was father of Hezron Hezron
Matthew 1:3 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀράμ
INT: moreover was father of Ram
Matthew 1:4 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀμιναδάβ Ἀμιναδὰβ
INT: moreover was father of Amminadab Amminadab
Matthew 1:4 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ναασσών Ναασσὼν
INT: moreover was father of Nahshon Nahshon
Matthew 1:4 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σαλμών
INT: moreover was father of Salmon
Matthew 1:5 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Βοὲς ἐκ
INT: moreover was father of Boaz of
Matthew 1:5 Art-GFS
BIB: Βοὲς ἐκ τῆς Ῥαχάβ Βοὲς
INT: Boaz of Rahab Boaz
Matthew 1:5 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰωβὴδ ἐκ
INT: moreover was father of Obed of
Matthew 1:5 Art-GFS
BIB: Ἰωβὴδ ἐκ τῆς Ῥούθ Ἰωβὴδ
INT: Obed of Ruth Obed
Matthew 1:5 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἰεσσαί
INT: moreover was father of Jesse
Matthew 1:6 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Δαυὶδ τὸν
KJV: of her [that had been the wife] of Urias;
INT: moreover was father of David the
Matthew 1:6 Art-AMS
BIB: τὸν Δαυὶδ τὸν βασιλέα Δαυὶδ
INT: David the king David
Matthew 1:6 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Σολομῶνα ἐκ
INT: moreover was father of Solomon of
Matthew 1:6 Art-GFS
BIB: Σολομῶνα ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου
INT: Solomon of the one [who had been wife] of Uriah
Matthew 1:6 Art-GMS
BIB: ἐκ τῆς τοῦ Οὐρίου
INT: of the one [who had been wife] of Uriah
Matthew 1:7 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ῥοβοάμ Ῥοβοὰμ
INT: moreover was father of Rehoboam Rehoboam
Matthew 1:7 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀβιά Ἀβιὰ
INT: moreover was father of Abijah Abijah
Matthew 1:7 Art-AMS
BIB: δὲ ἐγέννησεν τὸν Ἀσάφ
INT: moreover was father of Asa